When the App Clip was introduced in iOS 14, we immediately realized that it was something that could be a big opportunity for the Shop app. Due to the App Clip design, being a lightweight version of an app that you can download on the fly, we wanted to investigate what it could mean for us. Being able to instantly show users the power of the Shop app, without having to download it from the App Store and go through the onboarding was something we thought could have a huge growth potential.
One of the key features, and restrictions, for an App Clip is the size limitation. To make things even more interesting, we wanted to build it in React Native. Something that, to our knowledge, has never been done at this scale before.
Being the first to build an App Clip in React Native that was going to be surfaced to millions of users each day proved to be a challenging task.
What’s an App Clip?
App Clips are a miniature version of an app that’s meant to be lightweight and downloadable “on the go.” To provide a smooth download experience, the App Clip can’t exceed 10MB in size. For comparison, the iOS Shop app is 51MB.
An App Clip can’t be downloaded from the App Store—it can only be “invoked”. An invocation means that a user performs an action that opens the App Clip on their phone: scanning a QR code or an NFC tag, clicking a link in the Messages app, or tapping a Smart App Banner on a webpage. After the invocation is made, iOS displays a prompt asking the user to open the App Clip, meanwhile the binary of the App Clip is downloaded in the background that causes it to launch instantly. The invocation URL is passed on to the App Clip which enables you to provide a contextual experience for the user.
What Are We Trying to Solve?
The Shop app helps users to track all of their packages in one place with ease. When the buyer installs the app that order is automatically imported and the buyer is kept up to date about its status without having to ask the seller.
However, we noticed a big drop-off of users in the funnel between the “Thank you” page and opening the app. Despite the Shop app having a 4.8 star rating, the few added steps of going through an App Store meant some buyers chose not to complete the process. The App Clip would solve all of this.
When the user landed on the “Thank you” page on their computer and invoked the App Clip by scanning a QR code, or for mobile checkouts by simply tapping the Open button, they would instantly see their order tracked. No App Store, no onboarding, just straight into the order details with the option to receive push notifications for the whole package journey.
Why React Native?
React Native apps aren’t famous for being small in size, so we knew building an App Clip that was below 10MB in size would pose some interesting challenges. However, being one of the most popular apps on the app stores, and champions of React Native, we really wanted to see if it was possible.
Since the Shop app is built in React Native, all our developers could contribute to the App Clip—not just Swift developers—and we would potentially be able to maintain code sharing and feature parity with the AppClip as we do across Android and iOS.
In short, it was an interesting challenge that aligned with our technology choices and our values about building reusable systems designed for the long-term.
Building a Proof of Concept–Failing Fast
Since the App Clip was a very new piece of technology, there was a huge list of unknowns. We weren’t sure if it was going to be possible to build it with React Native and go below the 10MB limit. So we decided to set up a technical plan where if we failed, we would fail fast.
The plan looked something like this:
- Build a “Hello World” App Clip in React Native and determine its size
- Build a very scrappy, not even functional, version of the actual App Clip, containing all the code and dependencies we estimated we would need and determine its size
- Clean up the code, make everything work
We also wanted to fail fast product wise. App Clips is a brand new technology that few people have been exposed to. We weren’t sure if our App Clip would benefit our users, so our goal was to get an App Clip out for testing, and get it out fast. If it would prove to be successful we would go back and re-iterate.
When we started building the App Clip, there were a lot of unknowns. So to determine if this was even possible, we started off by creating a “Hello World” App Clip using just React Native’s <View /> and <Text /> components.
The “Hello World” App Clip weighed in at a staggering 28MB. How could a barebone App Clip be this big in size? We investigated and realized that the App Clip was including all the native dependencies that the Shop app used, even though it only needed a subset of the React Native ones. We realized that we had to explicitly define exactly which native dependencies the App Clip needed in the Podfile:
Defining dependencies was done by looking through React Natives node_modules/react-native/scripts/react_native_pods to determine the bare minimum native dependencies that React Native needed. After determining the list, we calculated the App Clip size. The result was 4.3MB. This was good news, but we still didn’t know if adding all the features we wanted would make us go beyond the 10MB limit.
Building a Scrappy Version
Building an App Clip with React Native is almost identical to building a React Native app with one big difference. We need to explicitly define the App Clip dependencies in the Podfile. Auto linking wouldn’t work in this case since it would scan all the installed packages for the ones compatible with auto linking and add them, we needed to cherry-pick pods only used by the App Clip.
The process was pretty straightforward; add a dependency in a React component, and if it had a native dependency, we’d added it to the “Shop App Clip” target in the Podfile. But the consequence of this would be quite substantial later on.
So the baseline size was 4.3MB, now it was time to start adding the functionality we needed. Since we were still exploring the design in this phase, we didn’t know exactly what the end result would be (other than displaying information about the user's order), but we could make some assumptions. For one, we wanted to share as much code with the app as possible. The Shop app has a very robust UI library that we wanted to leverage as well as a lot of business logic that handles user and order creation. Secondly we knew that we needed basic functionality like:
- Network calls to our GraphQL service
- Error reporting
- Push notifications
Since we only wanted to determine the build size, and in the spirit of failing fast, we implemented these features without them even working. The code was added, as well as the dependencies, but the App Clip wasn’t functional at all.
We calculated the App Clip size once again, and the result was 6.5MB. Even though it was a scrappy implementation to say the least, and there were still quite a few unknowns regarding the functionality, we knew that building it in React Native was theoretically possible and something we wanted to pursue.
Building the App Clip
We knew that building our App Clip with React Native was possible, our proof of concept was 6.5MB, giving us some leeway for unknowns. And with a React Native App Clip there sure were a lot of unknowns. Will sharing code between the app and the App Clip affect its size or cause any other issues? What do we do if the App Clip requires a dependency that pushes us over the 10MB limit?
Technology Drives Design
Given the very rigid constraints, we decided that unlike most projects where the design leads the technology, we would approach this from the opposite direction. While developing the App Clip, the technology would drive the design. If something caused us to go over, or close to, the 10MB limit we would go back to the drawing board and find alternative solutions.
Code Sharing Between Shop App and App Clip
With the App Clip, we wanted to give the user a quick overview of their order and the ability to receive shipping updates through push notifications. We were heavily inspired by the order view in Shop app, and the final App Clip design was a reorganized version of that.
The Shop app is structured to share as much code as possible, and we wanted to incorporate that in the App Clip. Sharing code between the two makes sense, especially when the App Clip had similar functionality as the order view in the app.
Our first exploration was to see if it was viable to share all the code in the order view between the app and the App Clip, and modify the layout with props passed from the App Clip.
We quickly realized this wasn’t viable. For one, it would add too much complexity to the order view, but mainly, any change to the order view would affect the App Clip. If a developer adds a feature to the order view, with a big dependency, the 10MB App Clip limit could be at risk.
For a small development team, it might have been a valid approach, but at our scale we couldn’t. The added responsibility that every developer would have for the App Clip’s size limit while doing changes to the app’s main order view would be against our values around autonomy.
We then considered building our own version of the order view in the App Clip, but sharing its sub components. This could be a viable compromise where all the logic heavy code would live in the <OrderView /> but the simple presentational components could still be shared.
The first component we wanted to import to the App Clip was <ProductRow />, its job is to display the product title, price and image:
The code for this component looks like this (simplified):
But when we imported this component into the App Clip it crashed. After some digging, we realized that our <Image /> component uses a library called react-native-fast-image. It’s a library, built with native Swift code, we use to be able to display large lists of images in a very performant way. And as mentioned previously, to keep the App Clip size down we need to explicitly define all its native dependencies in the Podfile. We hadn’t defined the native dependency for react-native-fast-image and therefore it crashed. The fix was easy though, adding the dependency enabled us to use the <ProductRow /> component:
However, our proof of concept App Clip weighed in at 6.5MB meaning we only had 3.5MB to spare. So we knew we only wanted to add the absolute necessary dependencies, and since the App Clip would only display a handful of images we didn’t deem this library an absolute necessity.
With this in mind, we briefly went through all the components we wanted to share with the order view, maybe this was just a one time thing we could create a workaround for? We discovered that the majority of the sub components of the <OrderView /> somewhere down the line had a native dependency. Upon analyzing how they would affect the App Clip size, we discovered that they would push the App Clip far north of 10MB with one single dependency weighing in at a staggering 2.5MB.
Standing at a Crossroad
We now realized sharing components between the order view in the app and the App Clip was not possible, was that true for all code? At this stage we were standing at a crossroad. Do we want to duplicate everything? Some things? Nothing?
To answer this question we decided to base the decision on the following principles:
- The App Clip is an experiment: we didn’t know if it would be successful or not, so we want to validate this idea as fast as possible.
- Minimal impact on other developers: We were a small team working on the App Clip, we don’t want to add any responsibility to the rest of the developers working on the Shop app.
- Easy to delete: Due to the many unknowns for the success of the experiment, we wanted to double down on writing code that was easy to delete.
With this in mind, we decided that the similarities between the order view in the app and the App Clip are purely coincidental. This change of mindset helped us move forwards very quickly.
Building the App Clip was very similar to building any other React Native app, the only real difference was that we constantly needed to keep track of its size. Since checking the size of the App Clip was very time consuming, around 25 minutes each time on our local machines, we decided to only do this when any new dependencies were added as well as doing some ad-hoc checks from time to time.
All the components for the App Clip were created from scratch with the exception of the usage of our shared components and functions within the Shop app. Inside our shared/ directory there are a lot of powerful foundational tools we wanted to use in the App Clip; <Box /> and <Text /> and a few others that we rely on heavily to structure our UI in the Shop app with the help of our Restyle library. We also wanted to reuse the shared hooks for setting up push notifications, creating a user, etc. As mentioned earlier, sharing code between the app and the App Clip could potentially cause issues. If a developer decides to add a new native dependency to the <Box /> or <Text /> they would, often unknowingly, affect the App Clip as well.
However, we deemed these shared components mature enough to not have any large changes made to them. To catch any new dependencies being added to these shared components, we wrote a CI script to detect and notify the pull request author of this.
The script did three things:
- Go through the Podfile and create a list of all the native dependencies.
- Traverse through all imports the App Clip made and create a list of the ones that have native dependencies.
- Finally, compare the two lists. If they don’t match, the CI job fails with instructions on how to proceed.
A few times we stumbled upon some issues with dependencies, either our shared one or external ones, adding some weight to the App Clip. This could be a third-party library for animations, async storage, or getting information about the device. With our “technology drives design” principle in mind, we often removed the dependencies for non-critical features, as with the animation library.
We now felt more confident on how to think while building an App Clip and we moved fast, continuously creating and merging pull requests.
Support Invocation URLs in the App
The app always has precedence over the App Clip. Meaning if you invoke the App Clip by scanning a QR code, but you already have the app installed, the app opens and not the App Clip. We had to build support for invocations in the app as well, so even if the user has the app installed scanning the QR code would automatically import the order.
React Native enables us to do this through the Linking module:
The module allowed us to fetch the invocation URL inside the app and create the order for already existing app users. With this, we now supported importing an order by scanning a QR code both in the App Clip and the app.
Smooth Transition to the App
The last feature we wanted to implement was a smooth transition to the app. If the user decides to upgrade from the App Clip to the full app experience, we wanted to provide a simpler onboarding experience and also magically have their order ready for them in the app. Apple provides a very nice solution to this with shared data containers which both the App Clip and the app have access to.
Now we can store user data in the App Clip that the app has access to, providing an optimal onboarding experience if the user decides to upgrade.
Testing the App Clip
Throughout the development and launch of the App Clip, testing was difficult. Apple provides a great way to mock an invocation of the App Clip by hard coding the invocation URL in Xcode, but there was no way to test the full end-to-end flow of scanning the QR code, invocating the App Clip, and downloading the app. This wasn’t possible either on our local machines or TestFlight. To verify that the flow would work as expected we decided to release a first version of the App Clip extremely early. With the help of beta flags we made sure the App Clip could only be invoked by the team. This early release had no functionality, it only verified that the App Clip received the invocation URL and passed along the proper data to the app for a great onboarding experience. Once this flow was working, and we could trust that our local mockups worked the same as in production, testing the App Clip got a lot easier.
After extensive testing, we felt ready to release the App Clip. The release process was very similar since the App Clip is bundled into the app, the only thing needed was to provide copy and image assets in App Store Connect for the invocation modal.
We approached this project with a lot of unknowns—the technology was new and new to us. We were trying to build an App Clip with React Native, which isn’t typical! Our approach (to fail fast and iterate) worked well. Having a developer with native iOS development was very helpful because App Clips—even ones written in React Native—involve a lot of Apple’s tooling.
One challenge we didn’t anticipate was how difficult it would be to share code. It turned out that sharing code introduced too much complexity into the main application, and we didn’t want to impact the development process for the entire Shop team. So we copied code where it made sense.
Our final App Clip size was 9.1MB, just shy of the 10MB limit. Having such a hard constraint was a fun challenge. We managed to build most of what we initially had in mind, and there are further optimizations we can still make.
Sebastian Ekström is a Senior Developer based in Stockholm who has been with Shopify since 2018. He’s currently working in the Shop Retention team.
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