Three Ways We Share Context at Shopify Engineering

To do your best work as a developer, you need context. A development community thrives when its members share context as a habit. That's why Shopify Engineering believes that sharing context is vital to our growth and success—as a company, as a team, and as individuals.

Context is an abstract term, and we use it to refer to the why, what, and how of our development philosophies, approaches, and choices. Although sharing context comes in a myriad of forms, three of the ways we do it at Shopify are through:

  • Our in-house Development Handbook
  • A vibrant developer presentation program, called Dev Talks
  • Podcasts that go deep on technical subjects.

Each of these programs is by and for developers at Shopify, and each has strong support from leadership. Let's take a brief look at each of these ways that we share context and how they benefit our development community.

Shopify Development Handbook

Managing content is always a challenge. In hi-tech organizations, where tools and technologies change frequently, products ship quickly, and projects can pivot from day to day, having access to up-to-date and relevant information is critical. In a whirlwind of change and information volatility, we try to keep a central core of context in our Development Handbook.


The origins of the Handbook go back to 2015, when Jean-Michel Lemieux (JML), our current Chief Technology Officer, joined Shopify. In his first role at the company, he needed to learn about the Shopify platform—quickly. The company and the product were both growing rapidly, and the documentation that existed was scattered. Much of the knowledge and expertise was only in the heads of Shopifolk, not written down anywhere.

So he started a simple Google Doc to try to get a grip on Shopify both technically and architecturally. As the doc got longer, it was clear that the content was valuable not just to him—this was a resource that every developer could contribute to and benefit from.

Soon, the doc took shape. It contained a history of Shopify development, an overview of the architecture, our development philosophy, and the technology stack we had chosen. It also included information about our production environment and guidance on how we handled incidents.

Becoming a Website

The next logical step was to evolve that document into an internal website that could be more easily searched and navigated, better maintained, and more visible across the whole engineering organization. A small team was formed to build the site, and in 2018 the Development Handbook site went live.

Since then, developers from all disciplines across Shopify have contributed hundreds of topics to the Handbook. Now, it also contains information about our development cultures and practices, using our key technologies, our principles of development, and a wealth of detailed content on how we deploy, manage, and monitor our code.

The process for adding content is developer-friendly, using the same GitHub processes of pull requests and reviews that developers use while coding. We use Markdown for easy content entry and formatting. The site runs on Middleman, and developers contribute to operations of the site itself, like a recent design refresh (including dark mode), improvements to search, and even adding client-side rendering of KaTeX equations.

A sample page from the Development Handbook website.  The top of the page contains the search functionality and hamburger menu. Below that is a breadcrumb menu feature.  The title of the Page is Data Stores and the copy is shown below the title.
Example topic from the internal Shopify Development Handbook

Handling Oversight and Challenges

The Handbook is essentially crowd-sourced, but it's also overseen, edited, and curated by the small but mighty Developer Context team. This team defines the site's information architecture, evangelizes the Handbook, and works with developers to assist them as they contribute and update content.

The Development Handbook allows our team to push knowledge about Sorbet, static-typing in Ruby, and our best practices to the rest of the company. It's a necessary resource for all our newcomers and a good one even for our experts. A must read.

Alexandre Terrasa, Staff Production Engineer

Despite its success as a central repository for technical content and context in Shopify’s Engineering org, the Handbook always faces challenges. Some content is better off residing in other locations, like GitHub, where it's closest to the code. Some content that has a limited audience might be better off in a standalone site. There’s constant and opposing pressures to either add content to the Handbook or to move content from the Handbook to elsewhere.

Keeping content fresh and up-to-date is also a never-ending job. To try to ensure content isn't created and then forgotten about, we have an ownership model that asks teams to be responsible for any topics that are closely related to their mandates and projects. However, this isn't sufficient, as engineering teams are prone to being reorganized and refocused on new areas.

We haven't found the sweet spot yet for addressing these governance challenges. However, sharing is in the DNA of Shopify developers, and we have a great community of contributors who update content proactively, while others update anything they encounter that needs to change. We're exploring a more comprehensive proactive approach to content maintenance, but we're not sure what final form that will take yet.

In all likelihood, there won't be a one-time fix. Just like the rest of the company, we'll adapt and change as needed to ensure that the Handbook continues to help Shopify developers get up to speed quickly and understand how and why we do the things we do.

Dev Talks

Similar to the Development Handbook, the Dev Talks program has a long history at Shopify. It started in 2014 as a weekly open stage to present demos, prototypes, experiments, technical findings, or any other idea that might resonate with fellow developers.

Although the team managing this program has changed over the years, and its name has gone through several iterations, the primary goals remain the same: it's a place for developers to share their leading-edge work, technology explorations, wins, or occasional failures, with their peers. The side benefits are the opportunity for developers to build their presentation skills and to be recognized and celebrated for their work. The Developer Context team took over responsibility for the program in 2018.

Before Shopify shifted to a fully remote work model, talks were usually presented in our large cafeteria spaces, which lent an informal and casual atmosphere to the proceedings, and where big screens were used to show off one's work. Most presenters used slides as a way of organizing their thoughts, but many talks were off the cuff, or purely demos.

A picture of Shopify employees gathering in the lunch room of the Ottawa Office for Dev Talks.  There are 5 long tables with several people sitting down. The tables are placed in front of a stage with a screen. On that screen is an image of Crash Bandicoot. There is a person standing at a lectern on the stage presenting.
Developers gather for a Dev Talk in the former Shopify headquarters in Ottawa, Canada

With the company's shift to Digital by Design in 2020, we had to change the model and decided on an on-demand approach. Now, developers record their presentations so they can be watched at any time by their colleagues. Talks don't have prescribed time limits, but most tend to be about 15 to 20 minutes long.

To ensure we get eyes on the talks, the Developer Context team promotes the presentations via email and Slack. The team set up a process to simplify signing up to do a talk and get it promoted, and created branding like a Dev Talks logo and presentation template. Dev Talks is a channel on the internal Shopify TV platform helping ensure the talks have a consistent home and are easy to find.

Dev Talks have given me the opportunity to share my excitement about the projects I've worked on with other developers. They have helped me develop confidence and improve my public speaking skills while also enabling me to build my personal brand at Shopify.

Adrianna Chang, Developer
Dev Talks Logo

Our on-demand model is still very new, so we'll monitor how it goes and determine if we need to change things up again. What's certain is that the desire for developers to share their technical context is strong, and the appetite to learn from colleagues is equally solid.

Internal Podcasts

The third way we share context is through podcasts. Podcasts aren't new, but they have surged in popularity in recent years. In fact, the founder and CEO of Shopify, Tobi Lütke, has hosted his own internal podcast, called Context, since 2017. This podcast has a wide thematic scope. Most of them, as we might expect from our CEO, have a technology spin, but they’re geared for a Shopify-wide audience.

To provide an outlet for technical conversations focused squarely on our developer community, the Technical Leadership Team (TLT)—a group of senior developers who help to ensure that Shopify makes great technical decisions—recently launched their own internal podcast, Shift. The goal of these in-depth conversations is to unpack technical decisions and dig deep into the context around them.

The Shift podcast is where we talk about ideas that are worth reinforcing in Shopify Engineering. All systems degrade over time, so this forum lets us ensure that the best parts are properly oiled.

Alex Topalov, Senior Development Manager

About once a month, several members of the TLT sit down virtually with a senior engineering leadership member to probe for specifics around technologies or technical concepts. And the leaders who are interviewed are in the hot seat for a while—these recorded podcasts can last up to an hour. Recent episodes have focused on conversations about machine learning and artificial intelligence at Shopify, the resiliency of our systems, and how we approach extensibility.

To ensure everyone can take advantage of the podcasts, they're made available in both audio and video formats, and a full transcript is provided. Because they’re lengthy deep dives, developers can listen to partial segments at the time of their choosing. The on-demand nature of these podcasts is valuable, and the data shows that uptake on them is strong.

We'll continue to measure the appetite for this type of detailed podcast format to make sure it's resonating with the developer community over the long run.

Context Matters

The three approaches covered here are just a sample of how we share context at Shopify Engineering. We use many other techniques including traditional sharing of information through email newsletters, Slack announcement channels, organization town halls with ask me anything (AMA) segments, video messages from executives, and team demos—not to mention good old-fashioned meetings.

We expect post-pandemic that we’ll reintroduce in-person gatherings where technical teams can come together for brief but intense periods of context sharing hand-in-hand with prototyping, team-building, and deep development explorations.

Our programs are always iterating and evolving to target what works best, and new ideas spring up regularly to complement our more formal programs like the Development Handbook, Dev Talks, and the Shift podcast. What matters most is that an environment is in place to promote, recognize, and celebrate the benefits of sharing knowledge and expertise, with solid buy-in from leadership.

Christopher writes and edits internal content for developers at Shopify and is on the Developer Context team. He’s a certified copy editor with expertise in content development and technical editing. He enjoys playing the piano and has recently been exploring works by Debussy and Rachmaninov.

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