If you were using computers in the ‘90s and the early 2000s, you probably had the experience of installing a piece of software you downloaded from the internet, only to discover that someone put some nasty into it, and now you’re dragging your computer to IT to beg them to save your data. To remedy this, software developers started “signing” their software in a way that proved both who they were and that nobody tampered with the software after they released it. Every major operating system now supports code or application signature verification, and it’s a backbone of every app store.But what about Kubernetes? How do we know that our Docker images aren’t secret bitcoin miners, stealing traffic away from customers to make somebody rich? That’s where Binary Authorization comes in. It’s a way to apply the code signing and verification that modern systems now rely on to the cloud. Coupled with Voucher, an open source project started by my team at Shopify, we’ve created a way to prevent malicious software from being installed without making developers miserable or forcing them to learn cryptography.
Why Block Untrusted Applications?
Your personal or work computer getting compromised is a huge deal! Your personal data being stolen or your computer becoming unusable due to popup ads or background processes doing tasks you don’t know about is incredibly upsetting.
But imagine if you used a compromised service. Imagine if your email host ran in Docker containers in a cluster with a malicious service that wanted to access contents of the email databases? This isn’t just your data, but the data of everyone around you.
This is something we care about deeply at Shopify, since trust is a core component of our relationship with our merchants and our merchants’ relationships with their customers. This is why Binary Authorization has been a priority for Shopify since our move to Kubernetes.
What is Code Signing?
Code signing starts by taking a hash of your application. Hashes are made with hashing algorithms that take the contents of something (such as the binary code that makes up an application) and make a short, reproducible value that represents that version. A part of the appeal of hashing algorithms is that it takes an almost insurmountable amount of work (provided you’re using newer algorithms) to find two pieces of data that produce the same hash value.
For example, if you have a file that has the text:
The hash representation of that (using the “sha256” hashing algorithm) is:
Adding an exclamation mark to the end of our file:
Results in a completely different hash:
Once you have a hash of an application, you can run the same hashing algorithm on it to ensure that it hasn’t changed. While this is an important part of the code signing, most signing applications will automatically create a hash of what you are signing, rather than requiring you to hash and then sign the hash separately. It makes the hash creation and verification transparent to the developers and their users.
Once the initial release is ready, the developer that’s signing the application creates a public and private key for signing it, and shares the public key with their future users. The developer then uses the private part of their signing key and the hash of the application to create a value that can be verified with the public part of the key.
For example, with Minisign, a tool for creating signatures quickly, first we create our signing key:
The public half of the key is now:
And the private half remains private, living in
Now, if our application was named “hello” we can create a signature with that private key:
And then your users could verify that “hello” hasn’t been tampered with by running:
Unless you’re a software developer or power user, you likely have never consciously verified a signature, but that’s what’s happening behind the scenes if you’re using a modern operating system.
Where is Code Signing Used?
Two of the biggest users of code signing are Apple and Google. They use code signing to ensure that you don’t accidentally install software updates that have been tampered with or malicious apps from the internet. Signatures are usually verified in the background, and you only get notified if something is wrong. In Android, you can turn this off by allowing unknown apps in the phone's settings, whereas iOS requires the device be jailbroken to allow unsigned applications to be installed.
A macOS dialog window showing that Firefox is damaged and can't be opened. It gives users the option of moving it to the Trash.
In macOS, applications that are missing their developer signatures or don’t have valid signatures are blocked by the operating system and advise users to move them to the Trash.
Most Linux package managers, (such as Apt/DPKG in Debian and Ubuntu, Pacman in ArchLinux) use code signing to ensure that you’re installing packages from the distribution maintainer, and verify those packages at install time.
Docker Hub showing a docker image created by the author.
Unfortunately, Kubernetes doesn’t have this by default. There are features that allow you to leverage code signing, but chances are you haven’t used them.
And at the end of the day, do you really trust some rando on the internet to actually give you a container that does what it says it does? Do you want to trust that for your organization? Your customers?
What is Binary Authorization?
Binary Authorization is a series of components that work together:
- A metadata service: a service that stores signatures and other image metadata
- A Binary Authorization Enforcer: a service that blocks images that it can’t find valid signatures for
- A signing service: a system that signs new images and stores those signatures in the metadata service.
Google provides the first two services for their Kubernetes servers, which Shopify uses, based on two open source projects:
- Grafeas, a metadata service
- Kritis, a Binary Authorization Enforcer
When using Kritis and Grafeas or the Binary Authorization feature in Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE), infrastructure developers will configure policies for their clusters, listing the keys (also referred to as attestors) that must have signed the container images before they can run.
When new resources are started in a Kubernetes cluster, the images they reference are sent to the Binary Authorization Enforcer. The Enforcer connects to the metadata service to verify the existence of valid signatures for the image in question and then compares those signatures to the policy for the cluster it runs in. If the image doesn’t have the required signatures, it’s blocked, and any containers that would use it won’t start.You can see how these two systems work together to provide the same security that one gets in one’s operating system! However, there’s one piece that wasn’t provided by Google until recently: the signing service.
Voucher: The Missing Piece
Voucher serves as the last piece for Binary Authorization, the signing service. Voucher allows Shopify to run security checks against our Docker images and sign them depending on how secure they are, without requiring that non-security teams manage their signing keys.
Using Voucher's client software to check an image with the 'is_shopify' check, which verifies if the image was from a Shopify owned repository.
The way it works is simple:
- Voucher runs in Google Cloud Run or Kubernetes and is accessible as a REST endpoint
- Every build pipeline automatically calls to Voucher with the path to the image it built
- Voucher reviews the image, signs it, and pushes that signature to the metadata service
On top of the basic code signing workflow discussed previously, Voucher also supports validating more complicated requirements, using separate security checks and associated signing keys to mix and match required signatures on a per cluster basis to create distinct policies based on a cluster’s requirement.
For example, do you want to block images that weren’t built internally? Voucher has a distinct check for verifying that an image is associated with a Git commit in a Github repo you own, and signing those images with a separate key.
Alternatively, do you need to be able to prove that every change was approved by multiple people? Voucher can support that, creating signatures based on the existence of approvals in Github (with support for other code hosting services coming soon). This would allow you to use Binary Authorization to block images that would violate that requirement.
Voucher also has support for verifying the identity of the container builder, blocking images with a high number of vulnerabilities, and so on. And Voucher was designed to be extensible, allowing for the creation of new checks as need be.By combining Voucher’s checks and Binary Authorization policies, infrastructure teams can create a layered approach to securing their organization’s Kubernetes clusters. Compliance clusters can be configured to require approvals and block images with vulnerabilities, while clusters for experiments and staging can use less strict policies to allow developers to move faster, all with minimum work from non-security focused developers.
Voucher Joins Grafeas
As mentioned earlier, Voucher serves a need that hasn’t been provided by Google until recently. This is because Voucher has moved into the Grafeas organization and now is a service provided by Google to Google Kubernetes Engine users going forwards.
Since our move to Kubernetes, Shopify’s security team has been working with Google’s Binary Authorization team to plan out how we’ll roll out Binary Authorization and design Voucher. We also released Voucher as an open source project in December 2018. This move to the Grafeas project simplifies things, putting it in the same place as the other open source Binary Authorization components.
Improving the security of the infrastructure we build makes everyone safer. And making Voucher a community project will put it in front of more teams which will be able to leverage it to further secure their Kubernetes clusters, and if we’re lucky, will result in a better, more powerful Voucher! Of course, Shopify’s Software Supply Chain Security team will continue our work on Voucher, and we want you to join us!
Please help us!
If you’re a developer or writer who has time and interest in helping out, please take a look at the open issues or fork the project and open a PR! We can always use more documentation changes, tutorials, and third party integrations!
And if you’re using Voucher, let us know! We’d love to hear how it’s going and how we can do a better job of making Kubernetes more secure for everyone!
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