Shopify loves Ruby and opportunities to get together with other engineers who love Ruby to learn, share, and build relationships. In November, Rubyists from Shopify’s Ruby and Rails infrastructure teams gathered in Denver at RubyConf 2021 to immerse themselves in all things Ruby with a community of their peers. If you weren’t there or want to revisit the content, we’ve compiled a list of the talks from our engineers.
A History of Compiling Ruby by Chris Seaton
Love Ruby compilers? Chris does.
“Why is it worth looking at Ruby compilers? Why is it worth looking at compilers at all? Well, I think compilers are fascinating. I’ve been working on them for a couple of decades. I think one of the great things about compilers, you can talk to anyone who’s a developer about compilers, because we all use compilers. Everyone’s got an opinion on how the languages should be designed. You can have conversations with anyone at every level about compilers, and compilers are just really fun. They may seem like a deeply technical topic, but they’re conceptually fairly simple. They take a file as input, they do something internally, and they produce a file as output.”
In this talk, Chris dives into the history of Ruby compilers, the similarities and differences, and what we can learn from them.
Learn more about Chris’ work on TruffleRuby: https://shopify.engineering/understanding-programs-using-graphs
Some Assembly Required by Aaron Patterson
In typical Aaron style, this talk is filled with puns and humor while being educational and thought-provoking. Aaron shares why he wrote a JIT compiler for Ruby. Why did he write a JIT compiler?
To see if he could.
“I wanted to see if I could build this thing. For me, programming is a really creative and fun endeavor. I love to program. And many times I’ll just write a project just to see if I can do it. And this is one of those cases. So, I think maybe people are asking, ‘does this thing actually work?’”
Watch Aaron’s talk to find out if it does work and learn how to build a JIT compiler in pure Ruby.
Learn more about TenderJIT on GitHub.
Building a New JIT Compiler Inside CRuby by Maxime Chevalier Boisvert
In this talk, Maxime talks about YJIT, an open-source project led by a small team of developers at Shopify to incrementally build a new JIT compiler inside CRuby. She discusses the key advantages of YJIT, the approach the team is taking to implement YJIT, and early performance results.
“The objective is to produce speedups on real-world software. For us, real-world software means large web workloads, such as Ruby on Rails. The benefits of our approach is we’re highly compatible with all existing Ruby code and we’re able to support all of the latest Ruby features.”
Check out YJIT in Ruby 3.1!
Learn more about YJIT:
- YJIT: Building a New JIT Compiler for CRuby
- Try Out YJIT for Faster Rubying
- GitHub Does My Operations Homework: A Ruby Speed Story
Gradual Typing in Ruby–A Three Year Retrospective by Ufuk Kayserilioglu and Alexandre Terrasa
Ufuk and Alexandre share a retrospective of adopting Sorbet at Shopify, why you don’t have to go full-in on types out of the gate, and why gradual typing might be a great middle-ground for your team. They also share lessons learned from a business and technical perspective.
“You shouldn’t be getting in the way of people doing work. If you want adoption to happen, you need to ramp up gently. We’re doing gradual type adoption. And because this is gradual-type adoption, it’s totally okay to start slow, to start at the lowest strictness levels, and to gradually turn it up as people are more comfortable and as you are more comfortable using the tools.”
Building Native Extensions. This Could Take A While... by Mike Dalessio
At RubyKaigi 2021, Mike did a deep dive into the techniques and toolchain used to build and ship native C extensions for Ruby. In his latest talk at RubyConf 2021, Mike expands upon the conversation to explore why Nokogiri evolved to use more complex techniques for compilation and installation over the years and touches upon human trust and security.
“Nokogiri is web-scale now. Since January (2021), precompiled versions of Nokogiri have been downloaded 60 million times. It’s a really big number. If you do back of the envelope power calculations, assuming some things about your core, 2.75 megawatts over 10 months have been saved.”Mike has provided companion material to the talk on GitHub.
Parsing Ruby by Kevin Newton
Kevin digs into the topic of Ruby parsers with a thorough deep dive into the technical details and tradeoffs of different tools and implementations. While parsing is a technically challenging topic, Kevin delivers a talk that speaks to junior and senior developers, so there’s something for everyone!
“Parser generators are complicated technologies that use shift and reduce operations to build up syntax trees. Parser generators are difficult to maintain across implementations of languages. They’re not the most intuitive of technologies and it’s difficult to maintain upstream compatibility. It’s a good thing that Ruby is going to slow down on syntax and feature development because it’s going to give an opportunity for all the other Ruby implementations to catch up.”
Problem Solving Through Pair Programming by Emily Harber
We love pair programming at Shopify. In this talk, Emily explores why pair programming is a helpful tool for getting team members up to speed and writing high-quality code, allowing your team to move faster and build for the long term. Emily also provides actionable advice to get started to have more productive pairing sessions.
“Pair programming is something that should be utilized at all levels and not exclusively as a part of your onboarding or mentorship processes. Some of the biggest benefits of pairing carry through all stages of your career and through all phases of development work. Pairing is an extremely high fidelity way to build and share context with your colleagues and to keep your code under constant review and to combine the strengths of multiple developers on a single piece of a shared goal.”
Achieving Fast Method Metaprogramming: Lessons from MemoWise by Jemma Issroff
In this talk, Jemma and Jacob share the journey of developing MemoWise, Ruby’s most performant memoization gem. The presentation digs into benchmarking, unexpected object allocations, performance problems common to Ruby metaprogramming, and their experimentation to develop techniques to overcome these concerns.
“So we were really critically concerned with optimizing our performance as much as possible. And like any good scientist, we followed the scientific method to ensure this happens. So four steps: Observation, hypothesis, experiment, and analysis. Benchmarks are one of the best ways to measure performance and to an experiment that we can use over and over again to tell us exactly how performant our code is or isn’t.”
Programming with Something by Tom Stuart
In this talk, Tom explores how to store executable code as data in Ruby and write different kinds of programs that process it. He also tries to make “fasterer” and “fastererer” words, but we’ll allow it because he shares a lot of great content.
“A simple idea like the SECD machine is the starting point for a journey of iterative improvement that lets us eventually build a language that’s efficient, expressive, and fast.”If you are interested in exploring the code shown in Tom’s talk, it’s available on GitHub.
The Audacious Array by Ariel Caplan
Do you love Arrays? In this talk, Ariel explores the “powerful secrets” of Ruby arrays by using…cats! Join Ariel on a journey through his game, CatWalk, which he uses to discuss the basics of arrays, adding and removing elements, creating randomness, interpretation, arrays as sets, and more.
“When we program, many of the problems that we solve fall into the same few categories. We often need to create constructs like a randomizer, a 2D representation of data like a map, some kind of search mechanism, or data structures like stacks and queues. We might need to take some data and use it to create some kind of report, And sometimes we even need to do operations that are similar to those we do on a mathematical set. It turns out, to do all of these things, and a whole lot more, all we need is a pair of square brackets. All we need is one of Ruby’s audacious arrays.”
If you want to explore the code for Ariel’s “nonsensical” game, CatWalk, check it out on GitHub.
Ruby Archaeology by Nick Schwaderer
In this talk, Nick “digs” into Ruby archeology to run old code and explore Ruby history and interesting gems from the past and shares insights into what works and what’s changed from these experiments.
“So why should you become a Ruby archeologist? There are hundreds of millions, if not billions, of lines of valid code, open source for free, on the internet that you can access today. In the Ruby community today, sometimes it feels like we’re converging.”
Keeping Developers Happy With a Fast CI by Christian Bruckmayer
As a member of Shopify’s test infrastructure team, Christian ensures that the continuous integration (CI) systems are scalable, robust, and usable. In this talk, Christian shares techniques such as monitoring, test selection, timeouts, and the 80/20 rule to speed up test suites.
“The reason we have a dedicated team is just the scale of Shopify. So the Rails core monolith has approximately 2.8 million lines of code, over a thousand engineers work on it, and in terms of testing we have 210,000 Ruby tests. If you execute them it would take around 40 hours. We run around 1,000 builds per day, which means we run around 100 million test runs per day. So that’s a lot.”
Read more about keeping development teams happy with fast CI on the blog.
Note: The first 1:40 of Christian’s talk has minor audio issues, but don’t bail on the talk because the audio clears up quickly, and it’s worth it!
Parallel Testing With Ractors–Putting CPU's to Work by Vinicius Stock
Vini talks about using Ractors to parallelize test execution, builds a test framework built on Ractors, compares current solutions, and discusses the advantages and limitations.
“Fundamentally, tests are just pieces of code that we want to organize and execute. It doesn’t matter if in Minitest they are test methods and in RSpec they are Ruby blocks, they’re just blocks of code that we want to run in an organized manner. It then becomes a matter of how fast we can do it in order to reduce the feedback loop for our developers. Then we start getting into strategies for parallelizing the execution of tests.”
Optimizing Ruby's Memory Layout by Peter Zhu & Matt Valentine-House
Peter and Matt discuss how their variable width allocation project can move system heap memory into Ruby heap memory, reducing system heap allocations, and providing finer control of the memory layout to optimize for performance.
“We’re confident about the stability of variable width allocation. Variable width allocation passes all tests on CI on Shopify’s Rails monolith, and we ran it for a small portion of production traffic of a Shopify service for a week, where it served over 500 million requests.”
Bonus: Meet Shopify's Ruby and Rails Infrastructure Team (AMA)
There were a LOT of engineers from the Ruby and Rails teams at Shopify at RubyConf 2021. Attendees had the opportunity to sit with them at a meet and greet session to ask questions about projects, working at Shopify, “Why Ruby?”, and more.
Jennie Lundrigan is a Senior Engineering Writer at Shopify. When she's not writing nerd words, she's probably saying hi to your dog.
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